Why Mongols did not go to the assault on Western Europe.


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On the climbing of the Mongols from the end of the 12th — and throughout the 13th century, everyone knows who at least a little familiar with the world history. This people who were united by Temudzhin at the end of the 12th century, after 1206 began active territorial expansion through the territory of Asia and Europe. To go into details as Temujin became a great Mongolian Khan, this is a topic of a separate article. It is only clear that by the time of the death of Genghishana, the state that he created was in the zenith of power and glory, won North China, all Central Asia. This state, subsequently, managed by the descendants of Genghis Khan — conquered Korea and the entire continental China, creating a state of Yuan there. Further, they won almost all the eastern, central and western Asia, up to the middle part of Anatoly and Mesopotamia, the entire Iran and the western part of India in Multan. You can talk a lot about the conquests of the Mongols, but today we have a little different question.

So, after the conquest of the Russian lands, the view of the Mongolian Great Khan (at that time Khan was no longer Chingis Khan, and his descendants) and his military leaders appealed to the West. Recall that at that moment the Eastern and Western Europe was in a state of feudal fragmentation and could not have any serious resistance to a single Mongolian state, which was at the peak of its power. More or less, with varying success, Arabs felt in Palestine, Syria and Egypt. It is also known about clashes with the Mongols of the Crusaders, which at that time ruled in the Latin Empire, which arose on the fragments of the Byzantine Empire after the capture of Constantinople with the Crusaders of the fourth crusade in 1204.

In January 1241, Mongols appeared at Krakow’s gate — which in those days was the capital of Poland. On April 9, 1241, there was a battle near the city of Legnica in Silesia between the Mongolian army under the command of the Bidar’s commanders and the United Polish-German Army of Prince Heinrich Pious. In Poland, Mongols also captured a number of important cities, as well as the famous city of Wroclaw in Silesia. In Hungary, they also waited for success. Surprisingly, then a very early warm spring came, which helped Mongolas to settle fortresses and smash the troops of both Hungarians and the combined troops of Poles and Germans. Contemporaries of those events noted that in April 1241 in Hungary stood hot weather. And now the most interesting thing from the main question of our today’s article. In official history, it was customary to call the main cause of the departure of Mongols from Hungary and Poland back to the steppe in the south of Russia and Central Asia — the death of the Great Khan Ugheda. But there are other reasons that are not widely publicized, and are known only to those who study the topic of the Mongolian conquests of the 13th century, which while in Europe and the rest of Asia were afraid like fire.

The fact is that the question arises here: «If the weather factor in 1241 played the Mongola’s hand so well, then why they did not move their troops to conquer Western Europe.» In fact, as I said above, all Western Europe was in a state of feudal fragmentation and represented a lot of state entities that were not always in a peaceful position among themselves. Of course, there was a sacred Roman Empire of the German nation, which united to some extent German and Czech lands, as well as the Kingdom of France, but nevertheless, they could not give a quick disgrace with more organized Mongols. But the story ordered so that the Mongols in 1242 left the Hungary and Poland who were busy with them, thereby western Europe was saved from the fate of the Mongols being plundered. Here I will give two serious factors that forced the Mongols to refuse to progress in Western Europe.

The Danube River was a very huge river and in the period of flooding in the spring — very much spilled in his floodplain. Its width increased by many kilometers. Scientists found out that flight periods 1238-1241. On the territory of Western Europe, and in particular, the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary were very hot. But since 1242, cooling and period of permanent rains in these territories and a colder winter begins. All this put the Mongolian Connection on the edge of death from the lack of feed. Therefore, it was the first cause of the departure of Mongols from Poland and Hungary. The second reason is such that about her, at first glance it is very difficult to guess.

The fact is that at the time of the invasion of Mongols to Western Europe, there was a confrontation between the Glevrophs — supporters of the Pope and Godchildren — supporters of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. This political conflict wanted to use the Batya for its own purposes to win Western Europe as a few decades ago, Genghis Khan himself was visited about the need to conquer the whole world by Mongols. Therefore, in the summer and in the fall of 1241, the Mongols tried to gain a foothold on the southern bank of the Danube to start full-fledged hostilities in Germany — in the lands of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. By the way, Baty so wrote to the German emperor, which goes to take his throne. The part of the Mongols detachments were able to cross on the other side of the Danube River, and even advanced to the surroundings of Vienna in the lower Austria, but suffered from the Bavarian Duke and the German king of Conrad IV. After they met the combined forces of Chekhov and Germans — Mongols have retreated at all back for the Danube.

So what is the second reason stopped the Mongols? Is there a defeat from the Germans and Czechs? No, here the whole reason lies in the fact that the Germans have always built a tight network of locks that were still the fortresses that needed to take the assault or breaking the walls, but the walls were stone, and it made it difficult to capture. And there were a lot of such castles in Germany. And here we are talking only about the castles on the very outskirts of Germany — in Austria. Further, in the depths of German lands, in Bavaria, Thuringia, Lorraine, Bohemia, and, moreover, in French lands — the chain of castles was so dense that the Mongols would simply be stuck in Western Europe. All this made a threat to the main forces of Mongols, who would be engaged in taking German fortresses, because Europeans could collect numerous troops and give Mongols the general battle, where Europeans had an advantage. Here they knew the terrain perfectly and could unexpectedly attack Mongolian forces. In the meantime, Mongolian rear in Hungary and Poland simply remained unprotected and could be attacked from Croatia or Serbia. It is also necessary to remember that the German and French crusaders kept Constantinople in their hands and could come to the rescue of Europe from the rear.

Now, it seems, it is clear why Bati gave an order for a departure from Poland and Hungary. This was played as a climatic factor, so the factor associated with the relief that manifested itself in the same River Danube. But still, a powerful system of fortifications — also played a role in refusing to conquer Western Europe with Mongols. After all, we must understand what people, even in those distant times, were not completely stupid, the more rulers and military leaders, and could correctly assess the situation. Therefore, Mongols knew that in Europe there is a powerful system of defensive castles, but only a real meeting with Czech-German troops and real fortresses in Austria — convinced the Mongols that Western Europe would not take them as storm. Therefore, in the future, only diplomatic and trade relations began to establish. In the future, the Mongol Empire also broke up into many uluses and the threat from the east for Europeans remained in the past.

And today everything. Thank you for reading to the end. We are waiting for your reading of our new articles.

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