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The question prescribed in the title refers, mainly to the wars who were conducted in the 20th century. In fact, the fronts began to be widely used during the world wars. But what could be the reason for the appearance of such a type of warfare. After all, people of centuries used other ways to build troops: phalanx, linear system, kara and many others.
If you deepen in the story, which becomes clear that at the beginning there was no special construction of troops, there was no structure. They fought, as they say, «the crowd on the crowd» and here, already the outcome of the battle solved the moderation and skill of warriors. Then, the construction was already invented. In the ancient times and in the Middle Ages it was easier to fight a dense structure or a wide coneney, as this allowed how to make horror on the enemy, so scatter his defense.
In addition, with this method, the morale of troops increased. All this made it possible to combine a huge number of soldiers in one place for numerical superiority. Yes, and the tight system has better protected when attacking the cavalry. Do you know, whether to try to collect while the attacking cavalry is on the way, or already be prepared for reflection. After all, the squadron of the cavalry quickly moved around the field quickly overtook the enemy.
Then the firearms appeared. At first, it was like this: slowly charged, the accuracy was low, therefore various troops were preserved, pour up to the 19th century. With the advent of the card, it became clear that such a construction puts into a risky position of the soldiers who are on the battlefield. After that, the scattering began to appear, the troops simply dispersed on the battlefield.
The appearance of firearms with greater range and rapid charging, machine gun and more accurate artillery — forced to completely change the tactics of hostilities. To cover the huge number of soldiers, the trenches and barriers were invented. This is the forerunner of the appearance of fronts. The First World War finally secured it. It is also necessary to say that earlier the economies of the countries did not have such an opportunity to mobilize a large number of people and arm each of them.
Another reason for the formation of fronts was that at all times the cause of defeats in wars, including, there was a bad supply of troops or a banal cut of these supply paths. Therefore, with in large wars, the offensive or defense with a single front is the only correct decision. But in modern wars, this may not be required, since there is a high-precision weapon, which can destroy both the ways of supplying enemy troops, and the command centers themselves, from where all orders come from.
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