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The subject of space in our country has always been relevant. After all, our country is a cosmic power. Many ideas and beginnings — appeared in Russia. The world is known to the world. Tsiolkovsky — founder father, theorist of domestic cosmonautics. Therefore, Russia must bear this banner and further. It should remain a cosmic power and not lose this title never, and fill it with new victories. Each of the world is aware that the world’s first artificial satellite in the near-earth orbit launched exactly our country. Yes, then Russia was called formally by the Soviet Union, however, for foreigners — our country has always remained Russia, even if Soviet. So, it happened on October 4, 1957. Today we will try, briefly, explain that this satellite represented and a little of the history of his launch.
The history of the creation of the first satellite, goes further than the 1957 itself. However, the research on the launch of the first satellite began during the reign of I.V. Stalin. It is necessary to know that on May 13, 1946, the Soviet missile industry was created by the Resolution of Joseph Stalin. R-7 rocket itself with a satellite arrived at Baikonur in September 1957. Just at that time, an international geophysical year was held and more than 60 countries conducted general geophysical studies and all sorts of observations. And launching the Soviet Union of the first artificial satellite in the world — it was supposed to produce a furyor to the whole world and raise the authority of the Soviet Union, which was questioned after the 20th CPSU Congress.
So, specifically on launch. The launch of the satellite was produced at 22:28 Moscow time from the Baikonur cosmodrome on October 4, 1957. After 295 seconds, the accelerated block and the satellite installed on it came to an elliptical orbit around the Earth. Apoge of the orbits amounted to 947 km, and Peria is 288 km. Satellite himself was called as PS-1. Its separation from the acceleration unit took place 20 seconds after entering the orbit around the Earth. After the PS-1 branch filed its famous repeating signals called «BIP! BIP!». Already, during the first turn of our companion, a telegraph agency of the Soviet Union, a message was transferred to the successful launch of the world’s first artificial satellite in the world.
After reaching the orbit, the PS-1 was on it as much as 92 days and during this time they had 1440 revolutions around the Earth. But, unfortunately, the radio transmission equipment of the satellite worked less, only about two weeks. After that, the satellite began to lose speed and reaching the upper layers of the Earth’s atmosphere — burned down in its dense layers. By the way, the first time after the launch of PS-1, people from the ground could observe a luminous brilliant object. Subsequently, it was found that it was the second stage of the rocket. She, indeed, rotated in the orbit of the Earth not far from PS-1. Subsequently, it burned down in the atmosphere of our planet.
The satellite himself was very simple and could only produce the most famous «BIP» BIP «on a certain radio frequency. Regardless, but it was not equipped with any equipment that could transfer information about his flight. The fact is that the USSR and the US fought for The right who the first will lead an artificial satellite into the orbit of the Earth, so such a simplicity of the decision. But after the USSR furnished the USA in the space race — on November 3, 1957, the USSR launched the second satellite on which everything was: and scientific equipment and the first In the world of cosmonaut, the truth is a dog husky. The satellite device was very simple. Comment I will not become, but just leave below the PS-1 scheme.
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