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Many are known that in the territory of modern North America, initially, the indigenous population lived — the Indians. But they were not homogeneous, but belonged to different Indian peoples. But, then the English colonists came, who were complemented by German, Scotch and Irish immigrants. At first, European colonists, and later, citizens of the United States of America, lived within the borders of 13 British colonies and their promotion went in the northern part of the United States along the coast of the Great Lakes. Indians, white colonists did not touch much.
It should be noted that their accommodation was conflict. Indians, later, participated in the US Civil War, participating both with one and on the other hand. And yet, on the shoulders of the Indian tribes lay closer in the first third of the 19th century, when they began to squeeze them from their native territories. The fact is that the growing white population of the United States needed new lands to conduct farms. Farming was on the rise. It is worth noting that not all the Indian peoples who lived on the east coast of the United States or, as can be called — on the left bank of the Great American Mississippi River — were resettled from their original lands in Prairie Kansas and Oklahoma. A part of the Indian peoples remained in their territories, was partially assimilated, but they still keep their languages and beliefs to this day.
And today we will talk about the resettlement of the great people of Cherokee, which, initially, lived in the territory of the southeastern forests of the United States. These are the modern territories of the states of North and South Carolina, as well as, Georgia. Currently, the overwhelming majority of Cherokee live in the prairies of Oklahoma. Why do you say, it is about the Cherokee? Because this people was one of the most advanced. Cherokees themselves, independently, were adopted by European colonists of the benefit of civilization. Cherokee turned out to be as Japanese, who managed to step over to such a short time through whole steps of the development of civilization. Cherokee, from hunters and novice farmers — became a civilized society in the literal sense of the word.
This people created their writing, a political system as in Western Europe, where there is a division of the authorities. This nation has its own president and parliament. Even the constitution created its own. Cherokee has developed crafts, there were their mills, plantations. Cherokee adopted construction from Europeans and began to live in houses by their type. Wore true European clothes. Do not forget that they had their own newspaper, which is still produced. Called Cherokee Phoenix. The most interesting thing is that among the Cherokee there were a lot of prosperous slave owners. Children of rich Cherokee received education in US schools. By the way, as the Cherokee themselves believed, their country was independent of the United States and was not part of this state. But in fact, everything was different. Legally, there was the territory of the United States.
Gradually, American citizens and white colonists who moved to the United States from Europe began to arrive at the land where the Cherokes lived. The political elite of the United States did not want, that they lived next to the Cherokee, at all. But but, I wanted this elite of their land, very much, because they were fertile. As a result, in 1830, the US Congress adopted a document called the «Act on the Resettlement of Indians.» In the document, 5 civilized tribes were prescribed: Cherokeys, Chocto, Chicaso, Creek, Seminols — to move to the state of Oklahoma. These lands were not so fertile and welly, as it was endless wild prairies. The American authorities directly prescribed in this law that if the Indians want to maintain their traditional lifestyle, then must comply and move.
At first, the American congressmen stated that the resettlement of the Indians voluntary, and they could remain, but to adopt US citizenship and assimilate with a civilized American society. Indians American authorities provided great compensation for land and property that they leave and leave after themselves. This law was very scandalous. The overwhelming majority of white Americans were against this law, as they understood that the resettlement for the Indians would be terrible and fatal, would bring them a lot of troubles and deprivation. The Americans considered the law as absurd and not fair. Called him and immoral. Simple Americans were not against living among civilized Indians, but elite, they needed land where there is no other civilization, except for them.
Since the Cherokee was not a stupid people, but civilized, they organized the struggle through the US court. And the most interesting thing is that the US Supreme Court made his decision … in favor of the Cherokee. It happened in 1832. From the decision of the court, it was read that the Cherokee, as a nation — was sovereign, and therefore the US authorities could not evict them from their own native territories. But, there was a reservation that the Cherokee could be evicted voluntarily, only concluding agreement with them to eviction through the contract. But the Cherokee Agreement with the US authorities signed. Opponents of the official authorities of the Cherokee tribe were collected in their same capital of New Ehota, Georgia. According to this agreement, signed on December 29, 1835, civilized, the westernized tribe of the Cherokee was inferior to their lands and moved to the earth west of the Mississippi River. But in fact, this agreement never subscribed to the official leadership of the tribe, as well as the majority of the people of the Cherokee. Think ourselves, unless the people want to leave voluntarily from their own territory.
He led the resettlement of the Cherokee General Winfield Scott. Everything passed in the form of military deportation. In 1838, American troops entered the territory of the country’s country and the deportation of the Indians west of the Mississippi River began. The American authorities «regretted the Cherokee» — General Scott specifically explained to his soldiers that violence or insult men, women and children of the Cherokee people — will be cruel. Nevertheless, the indigenous population has driven out of their homes under the threat of weapons. They were allowed to take with them what they could carry and collected them in concentration camps.
Cherokee’s houses were burned so that they could not return back. Then they became massively taken on the roads on the carts and rivers — on the barges in the state of Oklahoma. In concentration camps and on the way to a new home — 20% of the total number of the people of the Cherokee died. At the time of resettlement, the number of Cherokee was only 16-18 thousand people. Total, 4 thousand Indians died with resettlement. The Cherokee themselves, and in history, this event was named as «Road Tears.» It died not a little and in a new place of residence, as it was necessary to prepare the territory for settlement, there was a late autumn. In North Carolina, the US authorities were allowed to remain 5% of the cherokee people, and then, provided that they would accept US citizenship and assimilated in American society.
And today everything. Thank you for reading to the end. We are waiting for your reading of our new articles.
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